2. It can be activated easily and quickly and it
I n a ny a c t ive d e c o n t a m i n a t i o n o p e r a t i o n ,
personnel working in proximity should wear
covers all, or nearly all, of the ship's weather surfaces at
protective clothing and masks until the damage control
once, allowing liquid agent the least time to sorb into
assistant has declared the area safe.
paint or nonskid.
Physical removal methods involving the use of
3. It is highly effective in physical removal of
water without oxidizers may dilute the concentration
of agent but do not change their toxic properties.
prewetting before the arrival of the agent and then left on
Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that spray,
during and after agent deposition. However, it is still an
runoff, and disposal methods do not simply move
effective decontamination system, even when it is not
contamination to other parts of the ship.
activated until after the agent has been deposited.
DECONTAMINATION OF PERSONNEL
Periodic testing and inspection according to the
planned maintenance system is necessary to ensure
Personnel decontamination procedures are
designed to minimize the hazards to contaminated
for use if needed.
inside the ship. Decontamination procedures include
individual and group efforts.
We a t h e r i n g i s t h e g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n o f a
M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK)
p e r s i s t e n t h a z a r d d u e t o t h e e ff e c t s o f t h e
e nv i r o n m e n t . I t i s p a s s iv e d e c o n t a m i n a t i o n ,
The M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK),
requiring no expenditure of manpower or material.
shown in figure fig. 9-8, provides each individual with
a process for decontamination. The M291 is used to
decay of a chemical hazard. It may occur as the
decontaminate liquid chemical agents from exposed
liquid chemical agent is lying on a surface or as it
skin areas by physical removal, absorption, and
desorbs from some material into which it was
previously sorbed. Desorption proceeds quickly at
carrying pouch containing six sealed foil packets,
first, then the rate slows considerably. It is important
enough for three complete skin applications. Each
to remember that the agent vapor that results from
packet contains a folded applicator pad with a handle
weathering is harmful if its concentration is high
on one side. The pad is filled with the black
decontaminating powder, a reactive and absorbent
resin that is not toxic but may be slightly irritating to
We a t h e r i n g i s n o r m a l l y a p a r t o f a n y
the skin or eyes. The M291 is small and rugged enough
decontamination operation because active methods
for the individual to carry in a pocket on the chemical
cannot reach all the agents that are deposited on the
ship. The longer a liquid chemical agent is allowed to
protective overgarment (CPO) or the advanced
soak into alkyd paint or nonskid deck coating, the less
chemical protective overgarment (ACPG) or in the
e ff e c t ive a r e p h y s i c a l r e m ova l a n d c h e m i c a l
carrier for the MCU-2/P series mask.
Contamination Control Area (CCA)
tend to absorb agents. This factor extends the time
during which active decontamination measures can
All personnel exposed to the weather during or after
be effective. It may also increase the speed of
a chemical attack shall be considered contaminated and
shall reenter the ship through a decontamination station
cedures are generally the same for all ships. Variations
are due to differences in the design and location of the
If weathering is the decon- tamination
decontamination stations. The basic decontamination
option chosen, topside evolutions must be
process for personnel reentering the ship in a chemical
delayed until the hazard has decayed to a safe
hazard environment consists of five stages that are
level or all personnel going topside must wear
common to all ships. These stages are as follows:
individual protective equipment.