CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE DEFENSE
operational capability by the use of CB protective
Learning Objectives: Recall the elements required for
equipment can be minimized.
defense and countermeasures.
MCU-2/P SERIES PROTECTIVE MASK
Nuclear weapons are primarily designed to destroy
A primary means of defense against CB agents
material by blast and shock. Biological and chemical
i s t h e p r o t e c t ive m a s k . T h e M C U - 2 / P s e r i e s
substances for military use are primarily antipersonnel
mask (fig. 9-1) is designed to protect the face, eyes, and
agents; they are intended to produce casualties without
the respiratory tract of the user from tactical
the destruction of buildings, ships, or equipment. This
concentrations of chemical and biological agents,
chapter provides an overview of shipboard chemical
toxins, and radioactive fallout particles. It has a single
warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) defense
filter and two voicemitters, one on front of the mask for
speaking directly into a telephone or radio handset and
subjects is available in the Naval Ships' Technical
one at the side to allow personnel nearby to hear. A
Manual (NSTM), chapter 470, "Shipboard BW/CW
nosecup with two inlet valves fits over the nose and
Defense and Countermeasures."
mouth. It directs incoming air across the inside of the
lens to reduce fogging. The mask has a drinking tube
Chemical biological (CB) warfare defense is not a
that connects to a canteen with an M1 cap. Since the
function that a ship performs in isolation from other
MCU-2/P protective mask is available in three sizes, it
tasks. A ship is expected to operate in hazardous
is important to determine which size will provide the
environments including a variety of toxic environments.
best fit and the maximum protection to an individual.
A chemical or biological environment should be viewed
To simplify mask size selection and initial sizing, use a
as a potential overlay on any warfare task. The
caliper to measure face length (tip of chin to nasal root
employment of defensive measure may impair the
depression) according to instructions contained in the
ability of a ship to perform its assigned mission.
CB WARFARE DEFENSE PROTECTIVE
Learning Objective: Recall the function and use of
protective equipment designed for CB warfare defense.
protective equipment makes normal activities and
operational evolutions more difficult. The use or even
the threat of use of chemical or biological weapons
may force the ship into a protective posture that
d eg r a d e s i t s o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . I n s o m e
situations, the risk of chemical or biological casualties
must be accepted to permit accomplishment of a high
priority mission, but this risk should always be
minimized. Risk management is basically making
informed tradeoffs. It is important to understand not
only the capabilities of chemical and biological agents
and weapons but their limitations as well. This
knowledge provides the ability to make informed
decisions about the level of protection required.
Protective measures can then be limited to those that
are necessary and their use can be suspended as soon as
Figure 9-1. MCU-2/P and MCU-2A/P protective masks.
p o s s i b l e . I n t h i s wa y, t h e n ega t ive i m p a c t o n