· No sweating--skin is hot and dry
leader. Fire fighters advance into the immediate fire
area and apply AFFF directly onto the fire.
· Pupils of the eyes may become constricted
· Strong rapid pulse
Locating the Seat of a Fire
· Possible unconsciousness
All members of the fire party have been briefed
regarding the location of the fire from information
received from space evacuees. Finding the seat of the
sweat, preventing removal of excess heat. If the
internal temperature of the body rises above 105°, the
fire probably will not be too difficult; reaching it may
brain, kidneys, and liver may all suffer permanent
be another matter. In extreme temperature conditions,
damage. In its earlier stages, the victim may have
shown symptoms of heat exhaustion, as detailed
throughout the compartment with extreme caution.
above. The treatment of heat stroke may include:
· Immediately informing medical personnel,
moving the victim to the coolest possible area,
Once the team leader and nozzleman have
and removing clothing.
successfully reached the seat of the fire, the team
· Reduce body temperature immediately by
leader directs the nozzleman in foam application to
extinguish any remaining fire. Different spray patterns
dousing the body with cold water or by applying
cold, wet towels to the body.
from the hose nozzle are used as needed, either to break
up any combustible material, or to cover a certain area
· Ensure the victim has an open airway.
· Place victim on his or her back, head and
shoulders slightly raised.
Prevention of Reflash
· If cold packs are available, place them under the
AFFF is particularly effective against class
arms, around the neck, at the ankles, and on the
B R AVO fi r e s , b e c a u s e i t s e r ve s t h r e e d i s t i n c t
g r o i n . T h i s h e l p s l ow e r i n t e r n a l b o d y
functions. As foam it floats on top of flammable
liquids, preventing vapors from being released to the
· Give the victim cool water to drink. Do not give
atmosphere. This foam also prevents oxygen from
any hot drinks or stimulants.
reaching the flammable liquid. The AFFF foam, being
a mixture of concentrate and water, also provides a
ATTACKING A FIRE
cooling effect. Therefore, covering hot spots with
AFFF is highly effective in preventing reflash.
There are different methods for attacking a fire;
Allowing the compartment to cool down prior to
however, no single tactic or strategy is applicable to
reentry (with Halon effective) also helps to prevent
every situation. For example, in a multiple hose attack,
it is possible to drive smoke and flames away from one
hose team onto another team. Therefore, all attacks
must be coordinated.
Once satisfied that the original fire is extinguished,
One of the dangers of opening an access to a
the team leader stations a reflash watch. The person
compartment is that fresh oxygen is introduced into the
assigned as reflash watch remains near the seat of the
space. If space temperatures are above the
fire with a charged hose, and observes the area to
auto-ignition point of any combustible materials, they
ensure that no new fire breaks out. Normally at least
may start burning again once fresh air reaches them.
one other hoseman remains on scene with the
This is the reason for allowing a cooldown period,
nozzleman to tend the hose in case a reflash occurs.
assuming that Halon was used and was effective.
Hangfires and Overhaul
Once the reflash watch is set, the team leader and a
The ideal method of attacking a fire is a direct
second hose team search for hangfires. All areas of the
attack. This technique involves short bursts with a
narrow fog or direct stream, as directed by the team
compartment are examined with the NFTI, ensuring