Quantcast Figure  7-3.-Reinforced  concrete  columns.

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Figure 7-2.-Typical small footing. Figure  7-3.-Reinforced  concrete  columns. FOOTING AND FOOTING REINFORCE- MENT.—  Footings  support  the  entire  structure and  distribute  the  load  to  the  ground.  The  size and  shape  of  a  footing  depend  upon  the  design of  the  structure.  In  a  small  footing  (fig.  7-2), “steel   mats”   or   reinforcements   are   generally preassembled  and  placed  after  the  forms  have been set. In large or continuous footings, such as those found under bearing walls, steel mats are constructed  in  place. COLUMN  AND  COLUMN  REINFORCE- MENT.— A  column  is  a  slender,  vertical  member that   carries   a   superimposed   load.   Concrete columns,  especially  those  subjected  to  bending stresses, must always be reinforced with steel. A PIER  or  PEDESTAL  is  a  compressive  member that is short (usually the height is less than three times the least lateral dimension) in relation to its cross-sectional  area  and  carries  no  bending  stress. In concrete columns, vertical reinforcement is the  principal  reinforcement.  However,  a  loaded column shortens vertically and expands laterally; hence, lateral reinforcements in the form of lateral ties are used to restrain the expansion. Columns reinforced in this manner are called tied columns (fig. 7-3, view A). If the restraining reinforcement is a continuous winding spiral that encircles the core and longitudinal steel, the column is called a  spiral  column  (fig,  7-3,  view  B). BEAM   AND   BEAM   REINFORCE - MENT.— Beams are the principal load-carrying horizontal members. They take the load directly from  the  floor  and  carry  it  to  the  columns. Concrete  beams  can  either  be  cast  in  place  or precast and transported to the jobsite. Figure 7-4 shows several common types of beam reinforcing steel shapes. Both straight and bent-up principal Figure  7-4.-Typica1  shapes  of  reinforcing  steel. 7-4



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