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reinforcing bars are needed to resist the bending tension in the bottom over the central portion of the span. Fewer bars are necessary on the bottom near  the  ends  of  the  span  where  the  bending moment is small. For this reason, some bars may be bent so that the inclined portion can be used to  resist  diagonal  tension.  The  reinforcing  bars of  continuous  beams  are  continued  across  the supports  to  resist  tension  in  the  top  in  that area. SLAB  AND  SLAB  REINFORCEMENT.— Concrete   slabs   come   in   a   variety   of   forms depending on their locations. Ground slabs take the load directly to the ground. Plain slabs (similar in  shape  to  ground  slabs)  take  the  load  directly from  the  floor  and  transmit  it  to  the  beams.  In other cases, joists, poured as part of plain slabs, carry the loads to the beams. Joists are used to strengthen   the   middle   portion   of   the   slab. Figure 7-5.—Reinforcing steel for a floor slab. Concrete  slab  reinforcements  (fig.  7-5)  are supported  by  reinforcing  steel  in  configurations called  slab  bolster  and  high  chair.  Concrete blocks made of sand-cement mortar can be used in  place  of  the  slab  bolster.  The  height  of  the slab  bolster  is  determined  by  the  concrete protective cover required. If the concrete surface is  to  be  in  contact  with  the  ground  or  exposed to  the  weather  after  removal  of  the  forms,  the protective   covering   of   concrete   over   the   steel should  be  2  in.  Other  devices  used  to  support horizontal reinforcing bars are shown in figures 7-6,   7-7,   and   7-8.   Wood   blocks   should   be Figure 7-7.—Precast concrete block used for reinforcing steel support. Figure 7-6.—Devices used to support horizontal reinforcing bars. Figure 7-8.—Beam-reinforcing steel hung in place. 7-5

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