stakes are driven about 3 to 4 ft away
from the building line where they will not
be disturbed by the construction. They are
driven far enough apart to straddle the line
to be marked. Note in figure 14-40, only
three stakes are driven on outside corners
because one of them is a common post for
two directions. The length of the stakes is
determined by the required grade line. They
must be long enough to accept the 1- by 6-in,
crosspiece to mark the grade. The 1- by 6-in,
crosspiece is cut long enough to join both
stakes and is nailed firmly to them after the
grade has been established. The top of the
crosspiece becomes the mark from which the
grade will be measured. All batter boards
for one structure are set to the same grade or
level line. A transit is used to locate the
building lines and to mark them on the top
edge of the crosspiece. A nail is driven at
each of these marked points, or a V notch is
carved at the top outer edge of the crosspiece
towards the marked point and the nail is
driven on the outer face of the board.
When a string is stretched over the top edge
of the two batter boards and is held against the
nails or against the bottom of the notch, the string
will define the outside building line and grade
Sometimes a transit is not available for
marking the building line on the batter boards,
but the corner stakes have not been disturbed.
A cord is stretched over two opposite batter
boards, and plumb bobs are held over the corner
stakes; then the building line can be transferred
to the batter boards. The cord is moved on each
batter board until it just touches both plumb bob
strings. This position of the cords is marked, and
nails are driven into the top of the batter boards.
Batter boards are set and marked as follows:
1. After the corner stakes are laid out, 2-by
4-in. stakes are driven 3 to 4 ft outside of each
corner. These are selected to bring all crosspieces
to the same elevation.
2. These stakes are marked at the grade of the
top of the foundation or at some whole number
of inches or feet above or below the top of the
foundation. A level is used to mark the same grade
or elevation on all stakes.
3. One- by six-in. boards are nailed to the
stakes so the edge of the boards is flush with the
4. The prolongation of the building lines on
the batter boards is located by using a transit or
by using a line and plumb bob.
5. Either nails are driven into the top edges
of the batter boards or the boards are notched
to mark the building line.
UTILITIES is a general term applied to
pipelines, such as sewer, water, gas, and oil
pipelines; communications lines, such as telephone
or telegraph lines; and electric power lines.
For an aboveground utility, such as a pole-
mounted telephone, telegraph, or power line, the
survey problem consists simply of locating the line
horizontally as required and marking the stations
where poles or towers are to be erected. Often,
the directions of guys and anchors maybe staked
as well, and sometimes pole height for vertical
clearance of obstructions is determined.
For an underground utility, you will often
need to determine both line and grade. For
pressure lines, such as water lines, it is usually
necessary to stake out only the line, since the
only grade requirement is that the prescribed
depth of soil cover be maintained. However,
staking elevations may be necessary for any
pressure lines being installed in an area that
(1) is to be graded downward or (2) is to have
other, conflicting underground utilities.
Gravity flow lines, such as storm sewer lines,
require staking for grade to be sure the pipe is
installed at the design elevation and at the
gradient (slope) the design requires for gravity
flow through the pipe.
Grade for an underground sewer pipe is given
in terms of the elevation of the invert. The
INVERT of the pipe is the elevation of the lowest