Quantcast Figure  3-11.Types  of  ditches

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Figure  3-11.—Types  of  ditches Figure  3-12.—Drainage  systems. the bottom of the ditch to slow down the water. In general, a moderate velocity is desirable because it prevents  excessive  erosion  and  can  offset  the  pending effect  of  slower  moving  water. One  factor  involving  the  volume  of  water  that cannot be controlled is the rainfall itself. The more intense the rainfall and the longer the duration, the greater the volume of water the ditch has to carry. Talking to local residents and observing high-water marks along streams are helpful to the engineer in determining the heaviest rainfall to expect in a particular area. The engineer must consider not only the factors involving the volume of water but also the design of the ditch  itself.  Two  common  types  of  ditches  are  the V-bottom and the flat bottom, or trapezoidal, ditch. Examples of these ditches are shown in figure 3-11. Under  similar  conditions,  water  flows  faster  in  a V-bottom ditch than in a trapezoidal ditch. The side slope for a shallow V-bottom ditch is 4:1 or greater. For 3-12



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