CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND MATERIALS:
As a general rule, the term heavy construction refers
to the type of construction in which large bulks of
materials and extra-heavy structural members are used,
such as steel, timber, concrete, or a combination of these
materials. In the Naval Construction Force, heavy
construction includes the construction of bridges,
waterfront structures, and steel flame structures.
The Seabees construction functions, in support of
the Navys and Marine Corps operating forces, might
include the design and construction of these various
structures or their rehabilitation; therefore, you, as an
EA, should understand the terminology, the basic
principles, and the methodology used in the construction
of these facilities. Your knowledge of the methods and
materials used in heavy construction will greatly assist
you in the preparation of engineering drawings
(original, modified, or as-built).
This chapter will discuss basic heavy construction
methods and materials.
A bridge is a structure used to carry traffic over a
depression or an obstacle, and it generally consists of
two principal parts: the lower part, or substructure; and
the upper part, or superstructure. When a bridge is
supported only at its two end supports, or abutments, it
is called a single-span bridge. A bridge that has one or
more intermediate supports, such as the one shown in
figure 1-1, is known as a multispan bridge. Although
bridges may be either fixed or floating, only fixed
bridges will be discussed in this training manual
(TRAMAN). The following is a discussion of the
components of a fixed bridge.
Figure 1-1.A multispan (trestle-bent) bridge.