Figure 1-40.Typical steel trusses.

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Figure 1-39.—Typical built-up girders. which are, in turn, supported by columns. The horizontal members or beams that connect the exterior columns are called spandrel beams. If you add additional rows of columns and beams, there is no limitation to the area of floor and roof that can be supported using skeleton construction.   One   limitation   on   using   skeleton construction,  however,  is  the  distance  between  columns. Oftentimes,  large  structures,  such  as  aircraft hangars,   may   require   greater   distances   between supports than can be spanned by the standard structural steel shapes. In this case, one of several methods of long-span  steel  construction  is  used.  One  method  uses built-up girders to span the distances between supports. Two types of built-up girders are shown in figure 1-39. As seen in this figure, the built-up girder consists of steel plates and shapes that are combined together to meet the necessary strength. The individual parts of these girders are connected by welding or riveting. Another   method,   which   is   usually   more economical, is to use a truss to span large distances. As you learned in the EA3 TRAMAN, a truss is a frame- work  of  structural  members  consisting  of  a  top  chord, bottom  chord,  and  diagonal  web  members  that  are usually placed in a triangular arrangement. (See figs. 1-40 and 1-41.) As shown in figure 1-40, trusses can be fabricated to conform to the shape of nearly any roof system. A third long-span method, although not as versatile as trusses, is the use of bar joists. Bar joists are much lighter than trusses and are fabricated in several different types. One type is shown in figure 1-42. Prefabricated bar  joists,  designed  to  conform  to  specific  load requirements,   are   obtainable   from   commercial companies.  Other  long-span  construction  methods involve  several  different  types  of  framing  systems, which include steel arches, cable-hung frames, and other types of systems. These methods are beyond the scope of this TRAMAN. Figure 1-40.—Typical steel trusses. 1-20

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