governments to create and maintain conditions where
man and nature can exist together.
The Navys environmental quality program is the
Environmental and Natural Resources Program
Manual, OPNAVINST 5090.1. It contains guidelines to
prevent, control, and abate air and water pollution. In
general, we must ensure that all facilities, including
ships, aircraft, shore activities, and vehicles, are
designed, operated, and maintained to conform with
standards set forth in the 1970 and 1979 acts. The
following paragraphs cover the most important
requirements of the instruction.
Shore activities will use municipal and regional
waste collection and disposal systems whenever
possible. We will handle all materials such as solid
fuels, petroleum products, and chemicals in ways that
prevent or minimize pollution of the air and water. We
will reprocess, reclaim, and reuse waste material
whenever feasible. Ships will use port disposal facilities
for all waste before they get underway and when they
return to port. We will not discharge oil products within
any prohibited zone, and we will not discharge trash and
garbage within 12 miles of shore. We will normally
burn waste material in open fires. We will not use
sinking agents and dispersants to fight oil spills except
when there is a substantial fire hazard or danger to
To meet the requirements of the Clean Air and
Water Quality Improvement Acts, the Navy has
instituted several ongoing programs. Some of them are
in operation and others are being tested and evaluated.
For example, we now operate completely enclosed
firefighting training facilities from which no smoke
escapes. Aboard ship, we have shifted from Navy
standard fuel oil to distillate, which reduces air
pollution because it has a low sulfur content and burns
more cleanly than standard fuel oil. We are now
evaluating several models of self-contained shipboard
sanitary treatment systems that eliminate the discharge
of polluted sewage.
You can see that the Navy is using time, money, and
effort to reduce environmental pollution. To support
that policy, you should closely supervise all operations
that involve fuel handling, waste disposal, and the use
and disposal of toxic materials. Indoctrinate personnel
on the causes of pollution and the necessity to reduce it.
Be sure personnel under your supervision comply with
regulations and operating procedures for pollution
In the rest of this chapter, well cover the
procedures and facilities we use to help improve the
PREVENTING OIL SPILLS
The preferred method to reduce and control
environmental pollution is to prevent the pollution. We
must integrate prevention measures into any planned
industrial process, operation, or product as part of the
cost of daily operations. The following paragraphs
discuss ways to prevent pollution caused by oil spills.
Before you start any fueling, defueling, or internal
transfer operation, check all machinery and piping
systems for tightness and for signs of leaking glands,
seals, and gaskets. When you change oil or add oil to
machinery, take care not to spill the oil into the bilge.
Keep a drip pan and rags ready for use if needed. Keep
a close watch on centrifugal purifiers when they are in
operation to make sure they do not lose the water seal
and dump the oil into the bilge or contaminated oil tank.
When you deballast, keep a careful watch on the
overboard discharge to make sure that no oil is pumped
overboard with the water from the ballast tanks.
Pump all oily waste from tank cleaning operations
into a sludge barge.
Control of shipboard oil pollution is complicated by
the many and varied sources of oily waste. The Navy is
incorporating oil pollution control systems and
components into its ships that will reduce oil pollution
by the following means:
Reduce the generation of oily waste.
Store waste oil and oily waste.
Monitor oil and oily waste.
Transfer or offload waste oil and oily waste to
Process oily waste.
The training officer must ensure that formal
training is provided to key personnel who maintain and
operate pollution control equipment. The training
officer is responsible for training that achieves an
acceptable level of expertise.
Figure 6-1 shows a schematic diagram of a typical
shipboard oil pollution control system.
As a supervisor, you should be sure that all
engineering personnel are familiar with the sources of
oil spills and oil waste that may cause pollution. The