inspection. If, during overhaul of the chain, significant
Each link of the entire next-to-last shot is painted
defects are discovered, they should be brought to the
yellow. The last shot is entirely red. These last two
attention of the Naval Sea Systems Command. If
shots are the warning and the danger shots. Their
immediate replacement of a defective shot is not
purpose is to show you the approach of the chain's bitter
practical, it should be shifted to the bitter end of the
Securing the Bitter End
Recovery of Ground Tackle
The bitter end of the anchor chain is secured to a pad
When a chain has been slipped or parted, every
eye in the chain locker by a safety anchor shackle. The
possible means must be used to recover both the anchor
pad eye, welded to a specially reinforced bulkhead, is
and the chain. When recovery by the ship's force is
rated at 1.75 times the breaking strength of the shackle.
impossible, the lost anchor and chain should be buoyed
The strength of the shackle must approximate the
and bearings taken of the location of the loss.
weight of 20 shots of anchor chain hanging from the
ANCHORING AND MOORING
CARE OF GROUND
Letting go a single anchor is perhaps the simplest
way of securing a ship to the bottom, and when the
Anchors, chains, and appendages must be kept in
holding ground is good, the ship should ride easily in
good condition by the ship's force. This process
bad weather, provided an ample scope of chain is used.
involves the actions described below.
One disadvantage of using one anchor is that in a strong
The chain should be overhauled whenever
current, or in a gale, the ship may sheer, or rotate about
necessary, with precautions taken to see that the various
the anchor, considerably. Also, when a ship is
shots are properly marked and in good order. As the
anchored, it swings to the combined efforts of the wind
chain comes in, when a ship is getting under way, each
and current. Therefore, it is necessary to have an
link should be examined for cracks and other defects.
unobstructed area equal to the length of the ship plus the
Two competent observers, preferably petty officers,
scope (length) of chain used. If, for some reason, the
should be detailed to examine the chain.
anchorage does not afford such an area, the ship must be
Disassembly of detachable links in the outboard
swivel shot with hairpins requires removal and probable
A ship is moored when the port and starboard
destruction of the lockwire. Replacement wire of the
anchors are down at a considerable distance apart and
same type should be on hand before the lockwire is
with enough chain on each anchor that the ship is held
removed. Replacement hairpins can be fabricated on
with its bow approximately midway between them. A
board ship from corrosion-resistant steel. (See NSTM,
ship moored requires an unobstructed area the size of a
chapter 581, or the applicable MRC.)
circle with a radius only slightly larger than the length of
Anchor chain and its appendages should be
carefully examined for cracks, excessive wear,
Mooring to a buoy is another way of securing a ship.
distortion, or other defects. Parts that require coating
The buoys are usually anchored with a three-point
should be painted with anchor chain gloss black paint.
moor. This requires the ship to use only its anchor chain
(See NSTM, chapter 581.) Shackle bolts, locking pins,
forward and, if it is mooring bow and stem between two
and swivels should be examined carefully and put in
buoys, to also use a mooring line aft. The radius of
order. The turnbuckles in chain stoppers require
swing is limited to the ship's length and the scope of
frequent attention to keep them clean, free from rust,
anchor chain veered or the area between the two
and well lubricated with new lubricant.
At least once each 18 months all anchor chain
Now that we have discussed anchoring and
(including shackles, shackle pins, and detachable links)
mooring in general, we will cover the equipment used
and the personnel involved in letting go a single anchor.
should be examined, overhauled, and placed in a good
Mooring with more than one anchor is covered in other
state of preservation. To distribute the wear uniformly
training manuals for Boatswain's Mate and in ship-
throughout the length of the chain, the shots should be
handling books and courses.
shifted to new positions as necessary during this