lines are passed from the ship by boat to the stem buoy
One or more large shackles over the buoy wire
party. After the lines are made fast to the buoys,
serve as trolleys. The chain is connected to the trolley by
adjustments are made from on deck to spot the ship
a short wire strap passed around the stud of a link near
equidistantly, bow and stern, from the respective buoys.
the bitter end. Enough chain must hang free to allow it
to be shackled easily to the mooring ring. Connecting it
Most ships use an anchor chain forward and a nylon
to the fourth or fifth link usually provides the proper
towing hawser or a wire rope aft.
amount of free-hanging chain. Other preparations on
Slipping a Mooring
deck are much the same as for the ordinary method of
For this maneuver, a strong line or flexible wire is
mooring to a buoy, except that sufficient chain for the
run through the buoy ring and back on deck for use as a
maneuver is roused up and allowed to hang in a bight
slip rope. A strain is taken on it, and the chain is
over the side during the approach, and it is not necessary
unshackled. Should the ship be riding to a bight of the
to use a dip rope. The easing-out line, in addition to
chain, an easing-out line is used to ease the chain
controlling the travel of the chain during the mooring
through the ring while the chain is being hauled in. The
operation, prevents the bitter end of the chain from
dropping into the water during the approach.
ship now rides to the slip rope, and unmooring is
completed by letting the end of the slip rope go and
When the ship is mooring by the trolley method, the
reeving it through the buoy ring.
buoy party in the boat takes only the end of the wire to
the buoy. The wire is either shackled directly to the ring
of the buoy, or a short wire strap is passed through the
ring and the eye of the wire, and the ends of the strap are
All naval vessels are required to be able to tow and
shackled together. The buoy party is always provided
be towed. Equipment varies with the types of ships, and
with a strap when the size of the ring on the buoy is
procedures vary with the circumstances. Equipment
unknown. If possible, the buoy wire is connected to a
used, as well as procedures for towing and being towed,
ring other, than the one to which the chain will be
is listed in the ship's towing bill.
RIGGING FOR TOWING OR BEING
The ship is maneuvered to bring the bullnose
abreast of the buoy and about 10 yards away. Once the
To describe every towing rig would be impractical,
buoy wire is secured, it is heaved taut and kept that way.
so we have limited our description of rigging for
The chain is allowed to slide down the wire by slacking
emergency towing to the standard synthetic gear and
off the easing-out line, and the mooring shackle is
some parts of the wire rigs.
secured to the ring of the buoy by the buoy party. The
wire is then slacked and cast off, completing the moor.
NAVSEA provides the latest guidance concerning
authorized synthetic towing hawsers and end fittings.
On ships with unusually large and heavy chain, two
The preferred towline is a nylon rope of nonrotating
or more trolleys should be used, and it is a good idea to
construction that is either plaited or double-braided.
pass a line from the deck, through the ring of the buoy,
These lines must have a minimum breaking strength
and to secure it to the mooring shackle or the first link.
within 10 percent of the breaking strength of the
Then, by using this line and the easing-out line, the
emergency tow hawser shown in the ship's plans.
personnel on deck are able to assist the working party on
NAVSEA does not recommend the use of swivels with
the buoy to get the mooring shackle into position.
any of these towlines.
Bow and Stern Buoy Moor
The towing gear consists of reinforced structure
The bow and stem buoy moor is used by all navies.
points (referred to here as hard points), a chafing chain,
It is used throughout the world where the harbors are
a towing hawser, and connectors. On the towed ship,
small and congested or in areas where ships are out of
the chafing chain and hard points are usually made up
from the ship's anchor chain and chain stoppers fair-led
through the bow chock. A typical arrangement is shown
In this type of moor, the ship's bow is moored to the
forward buoy in either manner described above. At the
same time, a stem line or cable is run to the stem buoy.
provided by a towing pad which is usually located on
The ship approaches at an angle of about 20° to the
the centerline, although it is sometimes found on the
geographical line-of-bearing of the two buoys. While
chafing chain is connected to the pad by a pelican hook,
lines are being passed to the bow buoy party, similar