Cardinal marks carry topmarks, whenever practical,
with the cones as large as possible and clearly separated.
Maritime Buoyage System cardinal marks, as related to
a point of interest.
Notice that each quadrant shows the buoy or mark
Black and yellow horizontal bands are used to color
with its specific color coding, topmark, and light
cardinal marks. The position of the black band, or
pattern. Basically, the figure tells you that you will be
bands, is related to the points of the black topmarks.
safe if you pass north of a north mark, east of an east
The black and yellow horizontal bands are used as
mark, south of a south mark, and west of a west mark.
North--black band above yellow band
By day, topmarks are the most important features of
South--black band below yellow band
cardinal marks. To interpret cardinal marks, you must
West--black band with yellow bands above and
know the arrangement of the cones. For north, the point
of each cone is up. For south, the point of each cone is
down. The west topmark resembles a wine glass.
East--black band above and below yellow band
Figure 6-23.--IALA Maritime Buoyage System, cardinal marks.