TEAR AGENTS.-- When liquid or solid agents
does not relieve the local twitching of muscles, but this
have entered your eyes, force your eyes open and flush
twitching is not dangerous.
them with water. Put on your protective mask, cover the
Avoid water and food that may be contaminated
outlet valve and voice meter, and blow hard to clear the
with nerve agents. Let the medical personnel check the
mask. Keep your eyes open as much as possible. When
food and water for safety before you consume them. If
your vision clears, continue to perform your duties.
you have swallowed contaminated food or water and all
When it is safe to remove your mask, blot away tears,
of the following symptoms occur-increased flow of
but do not rub your eyes. Now face into the wind.
saliva, nausea, pains in the stomach, and tightness in the
INCAPACITATING AGENTS.-- By the time a
chestgive yourself the injections from the NAAK,
victim who is exposed to an incapacitating agent realizes
something is wrong, he or she may be too confused
BLISTER AGENTS.-- Casualties of blister agents,
mentally to handle his or her own decontamination.
such as HD (distilled mustard), exhibit redness and
These cases should be taken to medical personnel
inflammation of the eyes. Usually several hours after
immediately. If many people are affected, it may be
exposure, reddening of the skin appears, followed by the
necessary to confine them temporarily under guard to
appearance of blisters. There is NO first aid for blister
prevent accidents. These personnel must not be allowed
agents other than decontamination. Blister agent effects
to enter critical or dangerous spaces until complete
are delayed for several hours todays. To decontaminate
recovery is achieved, because these victims may not be
your eyes, flush with plain water repeatedly. Any blister
responsible for their actions. In addition, some of these
agents prevent sweating, which increases the danger of
agents on the skin and clothing should be removed using
heat stroke on hot days.
the M258A1 decontamination kits. Seek medical care
as soon as possible. If evacuation to a medical facility is
required, blister agent casualties receive the same
treatment given other bum victims.
BLOOD AGENTS.-- Agents, such as AC and CK,
Decontamination can be accomplished by the
enter the body by inhalation and produce symptoms
ranging from convulsions to coma. They act on the body
chemical agent. The primary purposes of
by interfering with the ability of oxygen-carrying cells
decontamination are to prevent casualties and to remove
to transfer oxygen to other body tissue. They may have
obstacles that may prevent mission accomplishment.
an imitating effect on nasal passages.
Individual decontamination or self-aid is performed
There is currently no self-aid or buddy aid treatment
by an individual with materials on hand. It is performed
for blood agent symptoms. Affected personnel should
on himself or herself and the equipment he or she uses.
seek medical attention.
It is performed as soon as practical and is usually
sufficient to allow the individual to carry on his or her
CHOKING AGENTS.-- This agent produces
assigned mission. The M258A1 is used for limited
coughing, choking, nausea, and headaches in casualties.
decontamination of all items of individual clothing and
Delayed effects include rapid and shallow breathing,
painful cough, discomfort, fatigue, and shock. First aid
Unit decontamination is an organized effort
includes immediate masking. Masking may prevent
performed by personnel of the unit, with equipment
further damage. No specific first aid other than efforts
available to the unit, when directed by the commander,
to prevent shock is available.
and under the supervision of trained CBR specialists.
VOMITING AGENTS.-- For protection against
All officers and qualified CBR specialists should be
vomiting agents, put on your mask and wear it in spite
prepared to act as supervisors of decontamination teams
of coughing, sneezing, salivating, or nausea. If
necessary, briefly lift the mask from your face to permit
vomiting or to drain saliva from the facepiece. Clear
Support-Level Equipment Decontamination
your mask each time you adjust it to your face and before
you resume breathing. Carry on with your duties as
vigorously as possible; this helps to lessen and to shorten
Equipment decontamination stations are located as
the symptoms. Combat duties can usually be performed
far forward upwind as possible and are normally run by
in spite of the effects of vomiting agents.
a specialized decontamination team or unit.