Figure 10-44.--Rule of nines.
alcoholic beverages while he is being treated at the
Note that burns and scalds are essentially the same
type of heat injury. When the injury is caused by dry
heat, it is called a burn; when caused by moist heat, it is
NEVER attempt to thaw frozen limbs by rubbing,
called a scald. Treatment is the same in both cases.
exercising, or heating them in front of an open fire.
CLASSIFICATION OF BURNS. Burns are
Transport the victim to a medical facility as soon as
classified in several ways: by the extent of the burned
possible. During transportation, slightly elevate the
frostbitten area and keep the victim and the injured area
surface, by the depth of the burn, and by the cause of the
warm. DO NOT ALLOW THE INJURED AREA TO
burn. Of these, the extent of body surface burned is the
BE EXPOSED TO THE COLD.
most important factor in determining the seriousness of
the burn, and it plays the greatest role in the casualty's
chances for survival.
BURNS AND SCALDS
In calculating the extent of burned surface, the
Burns and scalds are caused by exposure to intense
RULE OF NINES is used, which is shown in figure
heat, such as that generated by fire, bomb flash, sunlight,
10-44. These figures aid in determining the correct
hot liquids, hot solids, and hot gases. Contact with
treatment for a burned person. Shock can be expected in
electric current also causes burns, especially when the
adults with burns over 15 percent or in small children
skin is dry. Dry skin offers about 20 times more
with burns over 10 percent of the body surface area. In
resistance than moist skin to the passage of electric
adults, burns involving more than 20 percent of the body
current. Therefore, when the skin is dry, the local heating
surface endanger life, and 30-percent burns are usually
effects (burns) are greater, even though the total damage
to the body is less than when the skin is wet.
fatal if adequate medical treatment is not received.