impact. When the fracture is open, you may find bullets,
glass, shrapnel, or other objects that have penetrated the
2. The victim maybe conscious or unconscious.
When conscious, the victim may feel dizzy and weak,
as though he were going to faint.
3. Severe headache sometimes (but not always)
accompanies head injuries.
4. The pupils of the eyes maybe unequal in size
and may not react normally to light.
Figure 10-54.--Four-tailed bandage for a fractured jaw.
5. There maybe bleeding from the ears, nose, or
passage of any obstruction. When the fractured jaw
6. The victim may vomit.
interferes with breathing, pull his lower jaw and tongue
7. The victim may be restless and perhaps
FORWARD and keep them in that position.
confused and disoriented.
Apply a four-tailed bandage, as shown in figure
8. The arms, legs, face, or other parts of the body
10-54. Be sure the bandage pulls the lower jaw
may be partially paralyzed.
FORWARD. Never apply a bandage that forces the jaw
backward, since this could seriously interfere with
9. The victim's face maybe very pale, or it may
breathing. The bandage must be firm to support the jaw
be unusually flushed.
properly, but it must not press against the victim's throat.
10. The victim is likely to be suffering from shock,
Ensure the victim has scissors or a knife to cut the
but the symptoms of shock maybe disguised by other
bandage in case of vomiting.
Treat the victim for shock and obtain medical care
It is not necessary to determine whether or not the
as soon as possible.
skull is actually fractured when you are giving first aid
to a person who has suffered ahead injury. The treatment
FRACTURE OF THE SKULL
is the same in either case, and the primary intent is to
When a person suffers a head injury, the greatest
prevent further damage to the brain.
danger is that his brain may be severely damaged.
TREATMENT. Keep the injured person lying
Whether or not the skull is fractured is a matter of
down. When facial flushing is apparent, raise the
secondary importance. In some cases, injuries that
victim's head and shoulders slightly. When facial pallor
fracture the skull do not cause serious brain damage. But
is present, position the victim so the head is level with
brain damage can, and frequently does, result from
or slightly lower than the body. Watch carefully for
apparently slight injuries that do not cause damage to
vomiting. If the victim begins to vomit, position the head
the skull itself.
so choking on the vomitus does not occur.
It is often difficult to determine whether an injury
When there is serious bleeding from wounds, try to
has affected the brain because symptoms of brain
control it by applying direct pressure, using caution to
damage vary greatly. Any person who has suffered a
avoid further injury to the skull or brain.
head injury of any kind must be handled carefully and
You must exercise care when moving or handling
given immediate medical attention.
the victim. Transport the person only when necessary. If
Some of the symptoms that may indicate brain
you must transport the victim, keep him lying down.
damage are listed below; however, you must remember
Be sure the victim is kept comfortably warm but do
that these symptoms are not always present in any one
not overheat him. Do NOT provide the victim with
case and the symptoms that do occur may be greatly
anything to eat or drink. DO NOT GIVE ANY
1. Bruises or wounds of the scalp may indicate
that the victim has sustained a blow to the head.
Finally, obtain medical care for the victim as soon
Sometimes the skull is actually depressed at the point of