Figure 10-3.--Head-tilt or chin-lift maneuver. Perpendicular line
reflects proper neck extension; that is, a line along the edge
of the jawbone should be perpendicular to the surface on
which the victim is lying.
Figure 10-2.--0pening the airway. Top: Airway obstruction
produced by the tongue and epiglottis. Bottom: Relief by
head tilt or chin lift.
Since the tongue is attached to the lower jaw, moving
the jaw forward lifts the tongue and the epiglottis away
from the back of the throat and opens the airway (fig.
Figure 10-4.--Jaw thrust.
10-2, Bottom). Also, either the tongue or the epiglottis,
or both, may produce obstruction when negative
pressure is created in the airway by inspiratory effort,
JAW THRUST TECHNIQUE
causing a valve type of mechanism to include the
Another technique for opening the airway is the jaw
entrance to the trachea. Opening the airway maybe all
thrust. This technique is accomplished by kneeling by
that is needed to relieve the obstruction and allow the
the top of the victim's head and placing your fingers
victim to breathe.
behind the angles of the lower jaw, or hooking your
fingers under the jaw, then bringing the jaw forward.
HEAD TILT OR CHIN LIFT
Separate the lips with your thumbs to allow breathing
through the mouth as well as the nose, as shown in figure
10-4. This technique should be used when a neck injury
The rescuer should use the head-tilt or chin-lift
is suspected. Note that the head is not tilted.
maneuver, described below (fig. 10-3), to open the
airway. When foreign material or vomitus is visible in
Each of these techniques offer some relief for most
the mouth, it should be removed. Excessive time must
forms of airway obstruction. They also prepare the way
for artificial ventilation.
not be taken. Liquids or semiliquids should be wiped out
with the index and middle fingers covered by a piece of
After having opened the airway, check the mouth
cloth; solid material should be extracted with a hooked
for mucus, food particles, foreign objects, or loose
dentures. When present, open the victim's mouth and