Figure 8-14.-Common cast-iron soil pipe fittings.

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Figure 8-14.-Common cast-iron soil pipe fittings. used  are  shown  in  figure  8-14  and  described below. BENDS.—  The 1/16 bend (fig. 8-14, view A) is  used  to  change  the  direction  of  cast-iron  soil pipe  22  1/20.  A  1/8  bend  changes  the  direction 450. The direction is changed 90° in a close space when the SHORT-SWEEP 1/4 bend is used. The LONG-SWEEP  1/4  bend  is  used  to  change  the direction  90°  more  gradually  than  a  quarter  bend. The REDUCING 1/4 bend changes the direction of  the  pipe  gradually  90°,  and  in  the  sweep portion,  it  reduces  nearly  one  size. TEES.—  Tees (fig. 8-14, view B) are used to connect   branches   to   continuous   lines.   For connecting  lines  of  different  sizes,  REDUCING tees are often used. The TEST tee is used in stack and waste installations where the vertical stack joins the horizontal sanitary sewer. It is installed at this point to allow the plumber to insert a test tee and fill the system with water while testing for leakage.  The  TAPPED  tee  is  frequently  used  in the venting system where it is called the main vent tee.  The  SANITARY  tee  is  commonly  used  in  a main stack to allow the takeoff of a cast-iron pipe branch. NINETY-DEGREE  Y-BRANCHES.—  Four types   of   cast-iron   soil   pipe   90°   Y-branches generally   used   are   shown   in   figure   8-14, view   C.   These   are   normally   referred   to   as COMBINATION   Y   AND   1/8   BENDS.   The STRAIGHT  type  of  90°  Y-branch  is  used  in sanitary  sewer  systems  where  a  branch  feeds  into a main, and it is desirable to have the incoming branch   feeding   into   the   main   as   nearly   as possible in a line parallel to the main flow. The REDUCING   90°   Y-branch   is   the   same   as the straight type, except that the branch coming into the main is a smaller size pipe than the main. The   DOUBLE   90°   Y-branch   (or   DOUBLE 8-12

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