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distribution   and   sanitary   drainage   systems combined,   especially   on   smaller   buildings   or houses.  The  plumbing  layout  is  usually  drawn into  a  copy  of  the  floor  plan  for  proper orientation   with   existing   plumbing   fixtures, walls  and  partition  outlines,  and  other  utility features.  Figure  8-27  shows  a  typical  plumbing layout.   The   reproduction   is,   unfortunately, too  small  to  be  easily  studied,  but  you  can see   that   it   uses   the   mechanical   symbols. Refer  to  ANSI  Y32.4-1977,   Graphic   Symbols Used in Architectural and Building Construction and  MIL-  STD-17-1,  Mechanical   Symbols. As  shown  in  figure  8-27,  the  cold-water service  line,  which  enters  the  building  near  the laundry trays, is indicated by a broken dash-and- single-dot line, while the waste pipes are indicated by   solid   lines.   If   you   follow   the   cold-water service line, you will see how it passes, first, a 1-in. main  shutoff  valve  below  the  floor  and  just inside  the  building  wall.  From  here,  it  proceeds to a long pipe running parallel to the building wall and  hung  under  the  floor  joists,  which  services, beginning at the right-hand end, the cold-water spigot  in  the  sink,  the  cold-water  spigot  in  the laundry, the hot-water heater, the boiler for the house heating system, the flushing system in the water closet (W.C.), the cold-water spigot in the bathroom  washbasin,  and  the  cold-water  spigot in   the   bathtub.   The   below-the-floor   line   is connected  to  the  spigots  by  vertical  RISERS. Valves  at  the  hot-water  heater  and  boilers  are indicated  by  appropriate  symbols. From the hot-water heater, you can trace the hot-water line (broken dash-and-double-dot line) to  the  hot-water  spigots  in  the  sink,  laundry, bathroom  washbasin,  and  bathtub.  This  line  is also  hung  below  the  floor  joists  and  connected to  the  spigots  by  risers. You can see the waste line (solid line) for the bathtub,  washbasin,  and  W.C.  (with  traps indicated by bends) running under the floor from the  bathtub  by  way  of  the  washbasin  and  W.C. to the 4-in. sanitary sewer. Similarly, you can see the  waste  line  from  the  laundry  running  to  the same  outlet.  However,  the  kitchen  sink  has  its own, separate waste line. The bathroom utilities waste  lines  vent  through  a  4-in.  pipe  running through the roof; the sink waste line vents through a  2-in.  pipe  running  up  through  the  roof. MECHANICAL   SYMBOLS As stated earlier in this chapter, the Engineer- ing Aid is not expected to design the system, but the  main  objective  is  to  draw  a  workable plumbing  plan  for  use  by  the  plumbing  crew  or any   other   interested   parties.   In   order   to accomplish  this,  the  EA  must  be  familiar  with  the terms,   symbols,   definitions,   and   the   basic concepts  of  the  plumbing  trade. As  a  rule,  plumbing  plans  should  show  the location  of  the  fixtures  and  fittings  to  be installed  and  the  size  and  the  route  of  the piping. The basic details are left to the plumber (UT),  who  is  responsible  for  installing  a properly  connected  system  according  to  applicable codes,   specifications,   and   good   plumbing   and construction  practices.  Generally,  plumbing  plans consist of four types of symbols: piping, fittings, valves,  and  fixtures. Piping Symbols The  line  symbols  for  piping  shown  in  figure 8-28  are  composed  of  solid  or  dashed  lines  that indicate the type and location of that particular Figure 8-28.-Line symbols for piping. 8-21

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