Layout/Stakeout  Procedures

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remarks   side,   the   upper   numbers   with   the appropriate  letter  symbols  (C  for  cut,  F  for  fill) are  the  cuts  or  fills;  the  lower  numbers  are  the distances  out  from  the  center.  These  values indicate  points  at  which  the  slope  stakes  are driven. If a five-level or irregular section is being recorded, the other points must be written between those  for  the  center  and  for  the  slope  stakes. These  field  notes  given  you  the  coordinates that  you  can  use  to  plot  sections,  as  shown  in figure  14-30.  In  that  figure  for  purposes  of clarity, only the lines at every 1/4-in. interval are shown.  The  scale,  both  horizontal  and  vertical, is  1  in.  =  10  ft;  therefore,  the  interval  between each  pair  of  lines  represents  2.5  ft. The highway is to be 40 ft wide; therefore, the edge of the pavement for each plotted section will be 8 squares (8 x 2.5  = 20) on either side of the center line. Figure 14-30 shows that, for station 305,  the  left-hand  slope  stake  is  located  29.8  ft from the center line and 8.2 ft above grade. The right-hand slope stake is located 35.3 ft from the center line and 12.3 ft above grade. Note how the locations of these stakes can be plotted after you have selected an appropriate horizontal line for the grade line and how the side slopes can then be  drawn. The ground line at the center line is 9.3 feet above  grade.  Plot  a  point  here,  and  then  finish the plot of the section by drawing lines from the center-line  point  to  the  two  slope  stake  points. Plot  a  five-level  section  in  exactly  the  same way,  except  that  you  plot  in  additional  ground points  between  the  center  line  and  the  slope  stakes. Layout/Stakeout  Procedures The  design-data  survey  is  followed  by  the construction  survey  that  consists  broadly  of  the LAYOUT  or  STAKEOUT  survey  and  the  AS- BUILT  survey,  which  will  be  discussed  later  in this chapter. In a layout survey, both horizontal and vertical control points are located and marked (that  is,  staked  out)  to  guide  the  construction crews. Figure 14-31 identifies various stakes and hubs  used  in  highway  or  road  construction  and their  typical  arrangement.  The  functions  of  the various stakes and hubs are described briefly as follows: 1.   CENTER-LINE   STAKES   indicate   the exact  center  of  the  roadway  construction. 2. SHOULDER STAKES are used to indicate the inside edge of the roadway shoulders. These stakes are set opposite each center-line stake. 3. REFERENCE HUBS, as the name implies, are  used  to  reference  other  stakes  or  to  aid  in establishing or reestablishing other stakes. 4.  SLOPE  STAKES  mark  the  intersection  of side  slopes  with  the  natural  ground  surface.  They indicate the earthwork limits on each side of the center line. 5.   RIGHT-OF-WAY   STAKES   indicate   the legal  right  of  passage  and  outmost  bounds  of construction. 6.  GRADE  STAKES  indicate  required  grade elevations to the construction crews. During the final  grading  stage  of  construction,  hubs  called “blue  tops”  are  used  in  lieu  of  stakes.  The  blue Figure  14-31 .-Typical arrangement of various hubs and stakes on a road section (final grading). 14-34

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