foundation plan because the floor plan readily
offers the information you need for the
foundation plan, such as the general shape of the
building, openings, dimensions, and so forth.
Some of the basic procedures in the proper
development of a foundation plan are outlined
1. Prepare and organize your drafting needs.
Since the foundation plan is usually drawn at the
same scale as the floor plan (1/4 in. = 1 ft), use
the same sheet size and layout. A smaller scale
(1/8 in. = 1 ft) may be used for the foundation
plan when it is necessary to save space and
provided that the amount of information given
on this plan is limited. From an EAs point of
view, drawing the foundation plan at the same
scale as the floor plan is easier because you can
use the floor plan to trace the outline and other
features, thus saving time and effort. Ideally,
centering the plan would provide more space for
notes and details on footings.
2. Lay out the drafting sheet lightly, beginning
with the borders and title block. Tape the original,
or preferably a print of the floor plan, under the
sheet for the foundation plan if the same scale
is being used. Draw the exterior outline of the
foundation wall (usually the outside line of the
exterior lines of the building), and also locate any
retaining walls, steps, porches, and fireplaces.
Again, be careful to notice what type of frame
construction is used. The extent of using the floor
plan in laying out the foundation plan varies
among wood-frame, masonry, and steel-frame
construction. Study these differences closely.
Most often, dimensions are modified on the
foundation plan, depending on the materials
used. If the foundation is not drawn to the same
scale as the floor plan, first determine the size of
the foundation plan to be drawn, and lay it out
on the sheet. Follow up by transferring all of the
dimensions from the floor plan to the foundation
plan. Locate other features accurately.
3. Draw the inside wall of the foundation wall
once the wall thickness is scaled and the outside
foundation line is located. Along the wall, locate
other features, such as access doors, vents, and
pilasters. Also, draw the foundation for piers,
columns, chimney, and retaining wall, if required.
4. Lay out the footings. Check the standards
for typical details on different types of footing
and the minimum allowable footing size. Now,
draw and note any additional structural informa-
In wood-frame construction,
the structural information for the first-floor
construction is commonly shown on the founda-
tion plan. If required, locate and lay in the
supporting beam or girder and the size, spacing,
and direction of floor joists.
5. Lay out the dimensions. As in all of the
EA work, be sure to double-check all of the
dimensions to be certain they are correct and
complete and that all of the features required are
located in the drawing. Apply the principals and
correct drafting techniques learned from chapter
3 of this book. Add all of the notes, materials,
appropriate plan symbols, and other pertinent
information required to complete the plan.
6. Draw in the scale to the plan and the title
of the drawing. Go over your foundation-plan
checklist, and make sure the entire drawing is
darkened in and labeled.
FRAMING PLANS show the size, number,
and location of the structural members (steel
or wood) in the building framework. Separate
framing plans may be drawn for the floors, the
walls, and the roof.
The FLOOR FRAMING PLAN must specify
the sizes and spacing of joists, girders, and
columns used to support the floor. Detail
drawings must be added, if necessary, to show the
methods of anchoring joists and girders to the
columns and foundation walls or footings.
The floor framing plan is basically a plan view
showing the layout of the girders and joists.
Figure 10-19 shows the manner of presenting floor
framing plans. The unbroken double-line symbol
indicates joists. Joist symbols are drawn in the
position they will occupy in the completed
building. Double framing around openings and
beneath bathroom fixtures is shown where used.
Bridging is also shown by a double-line symbol
that runs perpendicularly to the joist. In the
figure, the number of rows of cross bridging is
controlled by the span of the joist; the rows should
not be placed more than 7 or 8 ft apart. Hence,
a 14-ft span may need only one row of bridging,
but a 16-ft span needs two rows.
Dimensions need not be given between joists.
Such information is given along with notes. For
example, 2" by 8" joists @ 2' 0" O.C. indicates
that the joists are to be spaced at intervals of 2
ft 0 in. on center (O.C.). Lengths may not be
indicated in framing plans; the overall building
dimensions and the dimensions for each bay or
distances between columns or posts provide such
data. Notes also identify floor openings, bridging,
and girts or plates.