Quantcast STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES - 14070_31

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Figure 1-38.—Structural steel skeleton construction. inches, apply to the side of the square or the diameter of the round. STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES The  construction  of  a  framework  of  structural steel  involves  two  principal  operations:  fabrication and  erection.  Fabrication  involves  the  processing  of raw  materials  to  form  the  finished  members  of  the structure.  Erection  includes  all  rigging,  hoisting,  or lifting   of   members   to   their   proper   places   in   the structure    and    making    the    finished    connections between members. A  wide  variety  of  structures  are  erected  using structural   steel.   Basically,   they   can   be   listed   as buildings, bridges, and towers; most other structures are modifications of these three. Buildings There are three basic types of steel construction. These may be designated as wall-bearing construction,  skeleton  construction,  and  long- span construction. In    wall-bearing    construction,    exterior    and interior masonry walls are used to support structural members, such as steel beams and joists, which carry the floors and roof. It should be noted that while this section  of  your  TRAMAN  discusses  steel  structures, wall-bearing  construction  is  applicable  to  nonsteel structures as well. Wall-bearing construction is one of the   oldest   and   most   common   methods   in   use. Although     modern     developments     in     reinforced concrete   masonry   make   the   use   of   this   method feasible     for     high-rise     structures,     wall-bearing construction  is  normally  restricted  to  relatively  low structures,  such  as  residences  and  light  industrial buildings. A tall building with a steel frame, such as shown in figure 1-38, is an example of skeleton construction. In  this  type  of  construction,  all  live  and  dead  loads are carried by the structural-frame skeleton. For this reason,  the  exterior  walls  are  nonbearing  curtain walls. Roof and floor loads are transmitted to beams and girders, 1-19



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