Quantcast Figure  1-17.Steel  sheet-pile  bulkhead. - 14071_22

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1. 2. 3. 4. Figure  1-17.—Steel  sheet-pile  bulkhead. Pile-and-sheathing   bulkhead Wood  sheet-pile  bulkhead Steel  sheet-pile  bulkhead Concrete  sheet-pile  bulkhead Most bulkheads are made of steel sheet piles, such as shown in figure 1-17, and are supported by a series of tie wires or tie rods that are run back to a buried anchorage (or deadman). The outer ends of the tie rods are anchored to a steel wale that runs horizontally along the outer or inner face of the bulkhead. The wale is usually made up of pairs of structural steel channels that are  bolted  together  back  to  back. In  stable  soil  above  the  groundwater  level,  the anchorage for a bulkhead may consist simply of a buried timber, a concrete deadman, or a row of driven and buried sheet piles. A more substantial anchorage for each tie rod is used below the groundwater level. Two common types of anchorages are shown in figure 1-18. In view A, the anchorage for each tie rod consists of a timber cap, supported by a batter pile, which is bolted to a bearing pile. In view B, the anchorage consists of a reinforced concrete cap, supported by a pair of batter piles. As shown in the figure, tie rods are supported by piles  located  midway  between  the  anchorage  and  the bulkhead. Bulkheads are constructed from working drawings like those shown in figure 1-19. The detail plan for the bulkhead shows that the anchorage consists of a row of sheet piles to which the inner ends of the tie rods are anchored by means of a channel wale. The section view shows that the anchorage will lie 58 feet behind the bulkhead. This view also suggests the Figure 1-18.—Two types of tie-rod anchorages for bulkheads. order of construction sequence. First, the shore and bottom will be excavated to the level of the long, sloping dotted  line.  The  sheet  piles  for  the  bulkhead  and anchorage will then be driven. The intervening dotted lines,  at  intervals  of  19  feet  4  inches,  represent supporting piles, which will be driven to hold up the tie rods. The piles will be driven next, and the tie rods then set in place. The wales will be bolted on, and the tie rods will  be  tightened  moderately  (they  are  equipped  with turnbuckles  for  this  purpose). Backfilling to the bulkhead will then begin. The first backfilling  operation  will  consist  of  filling  over  the anchorage,  out  to  the  sloping  dotted  line.  The turnbuckles on the tie rods will then be set up to bring the bulkhead plumb. Then the remaining fill, out to the bulkhead,  will  be  put  in.  Finally,  outside  the  bulkhead, the bottom will be dredged to a depth of 30 feet. To make it possible for ships to come alongside the bulkhead, it will be fitted with a timber cap and batter fender  piles,  as  shown  in  figure  1-20.  These  piles, installed at proper intervals, will provide protection against the impact of ships and will protect the hulls of ships  from  undue  abrasion. 1-10

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