make grommets, use your sail twine doubled and
twisted together. Use as many round stitches as you can,
stitching through the canvas over as great an area as
possible, to spread the strain. Usually O-rings are
secured to canvas by placing a webbed strap, folded
canvas strip, or even a leather strap through the ring and
sewing the strap to the canvas, using a flat stitch.
Awning hooks make canvas easy to install and
remove. To position these hooks and to prevent them
from sliding along the bolt rope, take several crisscross
several stitches around the concave pad on each side of
the hook to take the strain of the awning lashings.
It is a good idea to sew a reinforcing patch over the
edge of canvas at every place that you plan to attach a
Hides and skins, being of animal origin, vary in size
Figure 5-18.--Grommets, cutting punches, and inserting-
(area), thickness, and weight. Subsequent tanning and
finishing processes further alter these features. The
following information concerning size, thickness, and
weight is therefore only approximate.
canvas on a piece of heavy sheet lead, and they will cut a
neat, clean hole.
The various types of leather include rigging,
harness, shoe, chamois, kid, lacing, belting, and various
The grommet-inserting punches and dies are
artificial leathers. Of these, the three you are most likely
available in sets in the same sizes as the grommets; that
to need are rigging, belting, and artificial leathers.
is, from 0 to 15. Use the same size set as the size of
Rigging leather is designated by weight as light,
view F, the die.
medium, and heavy, and ranges from 6 ounces per
square foot to over 10 ounces per square foot. It is
The proper way to insert the spur type of grommet is
issued by the pound. There are approximately 20 square
to push the eyelet part of the grommet through the hole
feet per hide, and each sixty-fourth of an inch of
in the canvas. Place the eyelet on the die and, the spur
thickness equals approximately 1 ounce per square foot.
over the eyelet. Fit the punch inside the eyelet and strike
the top of the punch with a hammer. This will curl the
edge of the eyelet down over the spur. Do not pound too
hard on the punch, because that causes the grommet to
cut through the canvas, and later it may pull out.
The eyelet-and-ring type of grommet is designed
specially for awnings and sails. Properly used, this is
the best of all types. First, sew the ring part to the canvas
the same as the handmade grommet. Then place the
eyelet in the ring and set it with the punch and die.
Sewing Metal Fittings to Canvas
Most metal fittings that must be sewn to canvas are
rings of some sort. When you sew them on, as when you