Figure 5-13.--(a) Ridge; (b) Spur.
bottom.) The ground slopes upward on each side and
contour map, stylized panoramic sketches of the
toward the head of the draw. Draws occur
major relief formations are drawn. Then a contour
frequently along the sides of ridges at right angles
map of each sketch is developed. Each of the
to the valleys between them. Contours indicating a
figures that follow shows a sketch and a map with
draw are V-shaped, with the point of the V toward
a different relief feature and its characteristic
the head of the draw.
4. RIDGE. Normally, a ridge is a line of high
1. HILL. This is a point or small area of high
ground with minor variations along its crest. (See fig.
ground (fig. 5-11). When you are located on a hilltop,
5-13, views A and B, top and bottom.) The ridge is
the ground slopes down in all directions.
not simply a line of hills; all points of the ridge crest
2. VALLEY. A valley is a course of a stream that
are appreciable y higher than the ground on both sides
has at least a limited extent of reasonably level ground
of the ridge.
bordered on the sides by higher ground. (See fig. 5-12,
5. SPUR. A spur is a short, continuously sloping
views A and B, top and bottom.) The valley generally
line of higher ground normally jutting out from the
has maneuvering room within its confines. Contours
side of a ridge. (See fig. 5-13, views A and B, top and
indicating a valley are U-shaped and tend to parallel
bottom.) A spur is often formed by two roughly
a major stream before crossing it. The more gradual
parrallel streams cutting draws down the side of a
the fall of a stream, the farther each contour parallels
it. The curve of the contour crossing always points
6. SADDLE. A saddle is a dip or low point along
the crest of a ridge. A saddle is not necessarily the
3. DRAW. A draw is a less developed course of a
lower ground between two hilltops; it maybe simply
stream in which there is essentially no level ground
a dip or break along an otherwise level ridge crest (fig.
and, therefore, little or no maneuvering room within
its confines. (See fig. 5-12, views A and B, top and