Figure 5-16.--(a) Cut; (b) Fill.
7. CLIFF. A cliff is a vertical or near vertical
slope (fig. 5-15). When a slope is so steep that it
cannot be shown at the contour interval without the
contours coming together, it is shown by a ticked
"carrying" contour or contours. The ticks always
point toward lower ground.
8. CUTS and FILLS. Cuts and falls are man-made
features caused when the bed of a road or railroad is
graded or leveled by cutting through high areas and
filling in low areas along the right-of-way. (See fig.
5-16, views A and B, top and bottom.)
9. DEPRESSION. A depression is a low point or a
sinkhole, surrounded on all sides by higher ground (fig.
The rate of rise or fall of a landform is known as its
slope and may be described as being gentle or steep. The
question arises as to how gentle or how steep? The
speed at which equipment or personnel can move is