the victim securely to the stretcher or improvised
HAVE ADEQUATE ASSISTANCE. Remember, any
support, and obtain medical help immediately.
bending or twisting of the body is almost certain to cause
serious damage to the spinal cord. When there are at
least four (preferably six) people present to help lift the
victim, they can probably accomplish the job without
In the field, devices necessary for maintaining
much movement of the victim's body. But a smaller
personal hygiene and field sanitation must be
number of people should NEVER attempt to lift the
improvised. Some of the devices for field sanitation that
have been tried and used in the field successfully are
5. GET MEDICAL HELP AT ONCE.
FRACTURE OF THE PELVIS
When you are on bivouac or at a new location, it is
The large pelvic bones (sometimes called hipbones)
unlikely that you will find a waterborne sewage system
and the lower bone of the spinal column together make
available for your use. The usual alternative is digging
up the bony structure known as the PELVIS. The joint
a hole (cat hole) about 1 foot deep and covering the feces
between the thighbone (the long bone of the upper part
completely with dirt or using a latrine.
of the leg) and the pelvic bone is call the HIP JOINT.
NOTE: Latrines must be 100 yards from water
Fractures in the pelvic region often result from falls,
supplies and messing facilities.
heavy blows, and accidents that involve crushing. The
Straddle trench latrines are commonly used. Dig
greatest danger in any pelvic fracture is that the organs
straddle trenches as soon as you arrive at a position. Use
enclosed and protected by the pelvis may be seriously
the 1:2:3 ratio (trenches 1 foot wide, 2 feet deep, and 3
damaged when the bony structure is fractured. In
feet long). No seats are provided, and the men stand
particular, there is danger that the bladder is ruptured.
along the sides. Add another foot of depth for each day
There is also danger of severe internal bleeding, because
you anticipate using the trench. Keep a pile of dirt and
the large blood vessels in the pelvic region maybe tom
a shovel adjacent to the trench so each man may use
or cut by fragments of the broken bone.
some of the dirt to cover his waste materials. Boards may
The primary symptoms of a fractured pelvis are
be placed around the sides to help keep steady footing.
severe pain, shock, and loss of ability to use the lower
When the latrine is filled to within 1 foot of the
part of the body. The victim is unable to sit or stand. If
ground level or is to be abandoned, the following steps
conscious, the victim may feel as though his body is
should be initiated:
"coming apart." When the bladder is injured, the
victim's urine may be bloody.
1. Using an approved residual insecticide or diesel
fuel, spray the pit contents, the sidewalls, and the ground
TREATMENT. Do not move the victim unless
surface extending 2 feet from the sidewalls.
2. Fill the pit to ground level with successive 3-inch
Treat the victim for shock Keep him comfortably
layers of earth, packing each layer down before adding
warm. Do not attempt to place the victim in the shock
the next one; then mound the pit over with at least 1 foot
position, as this may produce futher damage internally.
of dirt and spray again with insecticide or diesel fuel.
When you must transport the victim to another
This prevents flies that hatch in the closed latrine from
place, handle him with the utmost care. Use a rigid
stretcher, a padded door, or a wide board. Keep the
When there is a possibility that others may come
victim lying on his back with his faceup. In some cases,
into the area, it is better to mark the closed latrine so the
the victim will be more comfortable when his legs are
site will not be used again. A sign "closed latrine" with
straight. In other cases, the victim will be more
the date of closing should be placed firmly in the earth
comfortable with his knees bent and his legs drawn up.
over the spot.
After you have placed the victim in the most
comfortable position, immobilize him by placing
As soon as possible, regular pit latrines should be
bandages around his legs at the knees and ankles. Then
dug. These latrines may be 20 to 30 feet deep if the
place a pillow beside each hip and fasten each pillow
ground permits. The sides must be straight and have no
securely with bandages or pieces of cloth. Finally, fasten
ledges that could catch feces. Latrine boxes, usually of