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ENGINEERS TRANSIT

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The  magnetic  compass  is  the  most  commonly used    and    simplest    instrument    for    measuring directions  and  angles  in  the  field.  This  instrument has    a    variety    of    both    civilian    and    military applications. The LENSATIC COMPASS (available in your Table of Allowance) is most  commonly  used  for SEABEE  compass  courses,  for  map  orientation,  and for  angle  direction  during  mortar  and  field  artillery fires. In  addition  to  this  type  of  compass,  there  are several others used exclusively for field surveys. The ENGINEER’S TRANSIT COMPASS, located between the standards on the upper plate,  is  graduated  from 0°  through   360°   for   measuring   azimuths,   and   in quadrants  of  90°  for  measuring  bearings  (fig.  11-4). Notice in figure 11-4 that the east and west markings are   reversed.   This   permits   direct   reading   of   the magnetic direction. The  compass  shown  in  figure  11-5  is  commonly called   the   BRUNTON   POCKET   TRANSIT.   This instrument is a combination compass and clinometer. It can be mounted on a light tripod or staff, or it may be cradled in the palm of the hand. Other  types  of  compasses  can  also  be  found  in some  surveying  instruments,  such  as  the  theodolite and plane table. Figure 11-4.-Engineer’s transit compass. ENGINEER’S TRANSIT A     primary     survey     fieldwork     consists     of measuring     horizontal     and     vertical     angles     or directions    and     extending     straight     lines.     The instruments  that  can  perform  these  functions  have additional refinements (built-in) that can be used for other survey operations, such as leveling. Two types of  instruments  that  fall  into  this  category  are  the engineer’s transit and the theodolite. In recent years, manufacturing   improvements   have   permitted   con- struction of direct-reading theodolites that are soon to replace   the   vernier-reading   transits.   However,   in most SEABEE construction, the engineer’s transit  is still the major surveying instrument. 45.742 Figure 11-5.-A Brunton pocket transit. 11-13



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