Figure 14-42.-Batter boards (without battens) for utility stakeout.
on each end. Similarly, the string (or cord) gives
both line and grade.
A finished structure seldom corresponds
exactly to the original plans in every detail.
Unexpected, usually unforeseeable difficulties
often make variations from the plans necessary
or, occasionally, variations may occur accidentally
that are economically unfeasible to correct.
The purpose of an AS-BUILT SURVEY is to
record these variations. The as-built survey should
begin as soon as it becomes feasiblemeaning
that the actual horizontal and vertical locations
of features in the completed structure should be
determined as soon as the features are erected.
At times, variations from the original plans
are recorded on new tracings of the working
drawings, on which as-built data are recorded in
the place of the original design data when the
two happen to differ. Sometimes, reproductions
of the original drawings are used with variations
recorded by crossing out the original design data
and writing in the as-built data.
In either case, the term as-built survey,
together with the date of revision, is written in,
or near, the title block.
A survey party working at a construc-
tion site is always in a dangerous situation.
Where blasting or logging is going on, inform
the powder crew or logging crew of the location
of the area in which surveyors are working. Also,
instruct the individual crew members of the survey
party to be on the alert at all timesparticularly
to listen for the warning signal given by a crew
using powder to set off a charge or a logger felling
When surveying near highways, railroads, or
airstrips, use red flagging generously unless you
are working in a combat area. Place flagging on
the legs of your surveying equipment and at a few
places along the tape. Put flags on rods and range
poles. Attach some flagging to your hat and also
to the back of your shirt or jacket.
Think constantly of personal safety when
working near heavy construction equipment. Let
the equipment operators know when surveyors are
in the vicinity. Also, alert all members of the
surveying crew because an equipment operator's
vision is often
obscured by dust or by the equip-