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45.838 Figure 5-53.-inclined letter formation. Figure 3-54.-Letterspacing. inclination is 67 1/2 degrees from the horizontal. Inclined  guidelines  may  be  drawn  with  the lettering  triangle  as  described,  or  a  line  at  the proper angle may be laid off with the protractor and parallel lines constructed from it. Horizontal guidelines and sequence of strokes are the same as   for   vertical   letters.   Rules   of   stability, proportion,  and  balance  are  similar.  The  circles and circular arcs used in vertical letters become elliptical  in  inclined  letters,  their  major  axes making angles of 45 degrees with the horizontal. Letters such as  A, M, V,  and Y should  be  made symmetrically about a guideline. Inclined lower- case letters follow the same principles as inclined capitals. COMPOSITION  OF  LETTERING Once you have learned the proper shapes and strokes  required  to  form  each  letter  and  numeral, you   should   concentrate   on   practicing   the composition  of  words  and  sentences.  Proper spacing  of  letters  and  words  does  more  for  the appearance of a block of lettering than the forms of the letters themselves. But this does not mean 45.215 that  you  should  discontinue  further  practice  of correctly  forming  each  letter. LETTERSPACING In   straight-line   lettering,   determine   the spacing between letters by eye after making the first  letter  and  before  making  each  succeeding letter. To give a word the appearance of having uniformly  spaced  letters,  make  the  areas  between the letters nearly equal, as shown in figure 3-54. The  areas  between  adjacent  letters  in  a  word  vary with respect to whether the letters have straight sides (H, I, M, N) or slanted sides  (A, V, W) and whether  the  letters  are  round  (O, Q, C, G) or  open (L, J). Adjacent  straight-sided  letters  are  drawn farther  apart  than  are  adjacent  round  letters. Adjacent slant-sided and open letters are drawn nearer together than are adjacent round letters. Where  letters  L and  T, L  and  V, A  and  V, and other pairs of like shape come together in a word, the top of one may have to be drawn above the bottom  of  the  other  to  avoid  having  the  word appear  as  two  or  more  words.  In  letterspacing, the six problems listed below are the hardest to solve.  The  first  five  problems  are  solved  by 3-35

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