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Figure  8-21.-Concave  slope.

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Figure 8-19.-Uniform,  gentle slope. Figure  8-21.-Concave  slope. that appears on the map completely closed may indicate either a summit or a depression. If the line indicates a depression, this fact is sometimes shown by a succession of short hachure lines, drawn perpendicular to the inner side of the line. An example of a depression is shown in figure 8-18. A contour line marked in this fashion is called a depression contour. On a horizontal or level plane surface, the elevation of all points on the surface is the same. Therefore, since different contour lines indicate different elevations, there can be no contour lines on a level surface. On an inclined plane surface, contour lines at a given equal interval will be straight, parallel to each other, and equidistant. A number of typical contour formations are shown in figure 8-18. For purposes of simplification, horizontal scales are not shown; however, you can see that various intervals are represented. The arrows shown indicate the direction  of  slope. Generally, the spacing of the contour lines indicates the nature of the slope. Contour lines (fig. 8-19) that are evenly spaced and wide apart indicate a uniform, gentle slope.  Contour  lines  (fig.  8-20)  that  are  evenly  spaced and close together indicate a uniform, steep slope. The closer the contour lines are to each other, the steeper the Figure 8-20.-Unifrom, steep slope. slope. Contour lines closely spaced at the top and widely spaced at the bottom indicate a concave slope (fig. 8-21). 8-17



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