EVASION, SURVIVAL, AND ESCAPE
Less obvious signs are conditions that are a type of
The tactical need for greater individual and unit
negative information, for example:
dispersion in warfare increases the possibility that your
unit may be temporarily isolated from friendly forces.
The absence of workers in fields is an indication
Experience shows this temporary isolation is fairly
that the enemy is near.
common and normal in both conventional warfare and
counterinsurgency operations. For example, enemy
The absence of children in a village is an
action may cause relocation of adjacent units so you lose
indication that they have been hidden to protect them
immediate contact with friendly forces; a sudden
from action that may be about to take place.
massing of guerrilla forces may isolate your unit in a
The absence of young men in a village is an
guerrilla-controlled area; or as a member of a patrol
operating in an enemy area, you may become separated
indication that the village is controlled by the enemy.
from your patrol and find yourself alone or with a small
No identifiable specific techniques are involved in
group. If you do become isolated, you and your group
evasion, but you need to use all other phases of your
or unit must still try to accomplish your assigned
combat training. You will use cover, concealment,
mission. After you complete your mission, your primary
camouflage materials, day-and-night movement
task is to rejoin friendly forces.
techniques, maintaining direction, security, passing of
When you are isolated in an enemy area, your major
obstacles, silent weapons, health measures, physical
problems are (1) avoiding the enemy (EVASION), (2)
conditioning, and patrolling. These are basic to evasion
the possibility of living in the field with limited
as well as to survival and to escape.
equipment (SURVIVAL) until you can return to friendly
You must know the following:
forces, and (3) the problem of escaping from the enemy
if captured (ESCAPE).
1. Ways of concealing yourself when the enemy is
near and how to move without silhouetting yourself
This chapter contains information on the principles
against the skyline; ways to keep from being spotted
and techniques of evasion, survival, and escape that
have been used successfully worldwide. The
from enemy aircraft.
information given here is by no means all-inclusive, but
2. The distance that noises carry in fog, falling
it should serve as an aid if the need arises.
snow, heavy foliage, or over rocky surfaces.
3. How smells from food being cooked, tobacco
and wood smoke, body odors, and body wastes can
Obviously, the most important consideration in
reveal your location.
evasion is knowing the location of the enemy. If you do
4. The dangers of sudden, rapid movement.
not know where the enemy is located when you become
separated from your unit, some of the more obvious
5. Ways to observe the enemy without being
signs to help you determine this are the following:
6. Methods to use for camouflaging yourself, your
Signs of the passage of groups, such as crushed
grass, broken branches, footprints, cigarette butts, or
camp, and your equipment without using too much
other discarded trash. These may reveal the identity,
size, direction of travel, and time of passage of the
7. How to select routes for movement that avoid
exposed areas; ways to move quietly without leaving
Workers in fields may indicate the absence of the
obvious tracks; and how to determine travel time for
yourself or for a group.
8. How to signal using your voice, hands and arms,
Apparently, normal activities in villages may
indicate the absence of the enemy.
pebbles, and pieces of wood.